선교역사가 소개: 스티븐 닐(Stephen Neill)

현대선교 20 (Current Mission Trends): “선교적 교회 개척”. 발행 : 2017년 8월 1일, 서울:GMF Press. 수록면 : 135-160.

박형진
프린스턴 신학대학원에서 선교 역사 전공으로 박사 학위 (Ph.D.)를 취득했으며, 지금은 횃불트리니티신학대학원대학교에서 선교학 교수로 봉직하고 있다.

I. 들어가면서

20세기에 들어오면서 영미권의 대표적 선교역사가를 꼽아본다면 미국의 케네스 스콧 라투렛(Kenneth Scott Latourette, 1884-1968)과 더불어 영국의 스티븐 닐(Stephen Charles Neill, 1900-1984)이 될 것이다. 닐의 저서 A History of Christian Missions (1964년 출간)은 선교역사를 탐구하는 자들에겐 이미 익숙한 제목의 저서가 되었다.1Stephen Neill, A History of Christian Missions (London: Penguin Books, 1964).

20세기 기독교는 교회사에 있어 특히, 에큐메니컬적 시도에 있어 매우 중요한 위치를 점유한다. 세계가 점점 좁아져가는 현실만큼 기독교의 확장은 급속히 이루어져갔다. 이러한 상황에서 대두될 수밖에 없는 이슈는 ‘에큐메니즘’이라는 새로운 양상이었다.

이와 맥을 같이하여 시대를 대표하는 기독교 사가를 한사람 꼽아야 한다면 닐은 손색없는 훌륭한 선택이 되리라 생각한다. 닐은 신학자요, 선교사요, 에큐메니컬 운동의 지도자인 만큼, 그에 대한 연구는 신학, 선교학, 교회사, 에큐메니컬 운동 등 폭넓은 분야를 망라할 수밖에 없다.

여러 영역에 걸친 그의 활동과 공헌을 결집하여 한마디로 그에 관해 묘사한다면, ‘에큐메니컬 비저너리(ecumenical visionary)’라고 하는 표현이 적절할 것 같다. 이 소고에선 그의 생애와 사상, 특히 선교역사가로서의 특징을 그러한 시각에서 고찰해 보고자 한다.

II. 닐의 생애와 저술

1. 배경과 영적, 시대적 유산

1) 가족배경과 회심

닐은 스코틀랜드의 에든버러에서 19세기의 마지막 해인 1900년 마지막 날인 12월 31일에 태어났다. 이미 인도의 의료선교사였던 외조부, 그리고 부모를 이어 그 자신 3대째 선교사 자녀로 태어난 닐은 그의 생애 첫 2년을 인도에서 보냈다. 닐의 부친은 의과대학시절 부흥사 무디(Dwight L. Moody)에 의해 큰 영향을 받았다.2Jackson, Eleanor M. “The Continuing Legacy of Stephen Neill,”International Bulletin of Missionary Research 19 (1995): 77.

닐의 신앙적인 뿌리는 ‘복음주의’적 근간에 있었다. 복음주의적 성격의 학교였던 Dean Close School 기숙학교에서 자라났고 14세 되던 1914년에 이하선염(mumps)으로부터 병치레를 할 때 회심을 경험했다. 닐은 그때를 회상하며 이렇게 서술하고 있다:

“침상에 누워있었을 때, 나에겐 그리스도가 나의 죄를 위해 죽으셨다는 것과 나의 남은 삶이 상상할 수 없는 축복을 주신 그분에게 감사와 정성을 다해 섬기는 삶으로 쓰여야 한다고 믿을 수밖에 없는 은혜를 경험하였다.”3Stephen Neill, God’s Apprentice: The Autobiography of Stephen Neill, ed. E. M. Jackson (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1991), 36.

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참고문헌

(장르별, 출판년도 순서로)

  • 참고문헌
    • Books by Neill
  • Autobiography
  • God’s Apprentice: The Autobiography of Bishop Stephen Neill. Ed. E. M. Jackson.
  • London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1991.
  • References
  • A Concise Dictionary of the Bible,with Arthur Bowle and John Goodwin. 2 vols. London: Lutterworth, 1966.
  • A Concise Dictionary of the Christian World Mission, with Gerald H. Anderson and John Goodwin. London: Lutterworth, 1970.
  • Biblical and Patristic Studies
  • The Interpretation of the New Testament, 1861-1961. London: Oxford University Press, 1964.
  • Bible Words and Christian Meaning. London: SPCK, 1970.
  • Jesus Through Many Eyes: Introduction of the Theology of the New Testament. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976.
  • Church and Mission History
  • The Christian Society. Westport, Connecticut: Green wood Press, 1952.
  • A History of the Ecumenical Movement: 1517-1948. Vo1.1. Eds. Ruth Rouse and Stephen Neill. Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1953.
  • Under Three Flags. New York: Friendship Press, 1954.
  • The Layman in Christian History. Eds. Stephen Neill and Hans-Ruedi Weber. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1963.
  • A History of Christian Missions. London: Penguin Books, 1964.
  • Colonialism and Christian Missions. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.
  • The Story of the Christian Church in India and Pakistan. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970.
  • A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
  • A History of Christianity in India: 1707-1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  • Mission and Ecumenism
  • The Cross Over Asia. London: The Canterbury Press, 1948.
  • Christian Partnership: James Long Lectures of the Church Missionary Society, 1950. London: SCM Press, 1952.
  • Towards Church Union 1937-1952: A Survey of Approaches to Closer Union among the Churches. London: SCM Press [published on behalf of the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches], 1952.
  • The Unfinished Task. London: Edinburgh House Press, 1957.
  • Brothers of the Faith. Abingdon Press, New York, 1960.
  • Twentieth Century Christianity: A survey of modern religious trends by leading churchmen. Ed. Stephen Neill. London: Collins, 1961.
  • The Church and Christian Union: The Bampton Lectures for 1964. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.
  • Ecumenism: Light and Shade: The Gallagher Memorial Lectures, 1967. Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1969.
  • Apologetics and Inter-Religious Dialogue
  • Christian Faith & Other Faiths: The Christian Dialogue with Other Religions: The Moorhouse Lectures, Melbourne, 1960. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
  • Christian Faith To-day. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1965.
  • What We Know about Jesus. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972.
  • Bhakti: Hindu and Christian. Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1974.
  • Salvation Tomorrow: The originality of Jesus Christ and the world’s religions. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976.
  • Crises of Belief: The Christian Dialogue with Faith and No Faith. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1984.
  • The Supremacy of Jesus. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1984.
  • Church Ministry and Christian Life
  • The Ministry of the Church. Ed. Stephen Neill et al. London: The Canterbury Press, 1947.
  • Fullfill thy Ministry. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1952.
  • On the Ministry. London: SCM Press, 1952.
  • A Genuinely Human Existence: Towards A Christian Psychology. New York: Doubleddy & Company, 1959.
  • Christian Holiness. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1960.
  • World Christian Books Series
  • The Christian’s God. Associatition Press, 1955.
  • Who is Jesus Christ. London: Lutterworth Press, 1956.
  • Paul to the Galatians. London: Lutterworth Press, 1958.
  • What is Man? London: Lutterworth Press, 1960.
  • The Christian Character. New York: Association Press, 1964.
  • Paul to the Colossians. New York: Association Press, 1964.
    • Articles, Essays, Reviews by Neill
  • “The Church’s Failure to Be Christian.” In Man’s Disorder and God’s Design: An omnibus volume of The Amsterdam Assembly Series prepared under the auspices of The First Assembly of the World Council of Churches Including the official findings of the Four Sections. Vol. 2, The Church’s Witness to God’s Design, 72-79. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1984.
  • “Missions Enter a New Phase.” Union Seminary Quarterly Review 9 (1954): 3-9.
  • “Ecumenical Missions.” Frontier 3 (1960): 101-106.
  • “Books for the World.” Frontier 4 (1961): 245-250.
  • “The Church: An Ecumenical Perspective.” Interpretation 19 (1965): 131-148.
  • “Church of the Future, Reunion, and the Ecumenical Movement.” Modern Churchman 10 (1966): 81-91.
  • “Does Our Church Need a New Reformation? An Anglican Reply.” In Post-Ecumenical Christianity, ed. Hans Küng, 71-80. New York: Herder and Herder, 1970.
  • “The History of Missions: An Academic Discipline.” In The Mission of the Church and the Propagation of the Faith: Papers Read at the Seventh Summer Meeting and the Eighth Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. G. J. Cuming, 149-170. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.
  • “The Holy Spirit in the non-Christian World.” Church Quarterly 3 (1971): 301-311.
  • “Syncretism and Missionary Philosophy Today.” Review and Expositor 68 (1971): 65-80.
  • “Ecumenism’s Past and Future: Shifting Perspectives.” [interview by John E. Groh] Christian Century 92 (1975): 569-572.
  • “Some Realism in the Ecumenical Illusion.” Churchman 89 (1975): 235-240.
  • “The Third World and Mission.” Review and Expositor 74 (1977): 135-148.
  • “Religion and Culture: A Historical Introduction.” In Down to Earth: Studies in Christianity and Culture, eds. John R. Stott and Robert Coote, 1-13. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.
  • Other Sources including the Books, Articles, and Essays by and on Neill
  • Neill, Stephen. “Ecumenism’s past and future: shifting perspectives” [interviewed by John E. Groh] Christian Century 92 (1975): 568-572.
  • Green, Michael, ed. Truth of God incarnate [reply to Myth of God incarnate, ed. by J. H. Hick]. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1977.
  • Lamb, Christopher. “Stephen Neill 1900-1984: Unafraid to Ask Ultimate Questions.” In Mission legacies, ed. Gerald Anderson et al. 446-451, Maryknoll: Orbis, 1994.
  • Jackson, Eleanor M. “The Continuing Legacy of Stephen Neill.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 19 (1995): 77-80.
  • Jongeneel, Jan A. B. Philosophy, Science, and Theology of Mission in the 19th and 20th Centuries: A Missiological Encyclopedia, part 1, The Philosophy and Science of Mission. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1995.
  • Pierard, Richard V. “Stephen Neill.” In Historians of the Christian Tradition: Their Methodology and Influence on Western Thought, ed. Michael Bauman and Martin I. Klauber, 531-549. Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 1995.
  • Sanneh, Lamin. “World Christianity and the New Historiography.” In Enlarging the Story: Perspectives on Writing World Christian History, ed. Wilbert R. Shenk, 94-114. Maryknoll: Orbis, 2002.

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